Visit the Privacy Rights Clearinghouse for comprehensive information on many of your privacy rights.
One fundamental privacy right is the Fourth Amendment protection against unreasonable searches. An excellent overview of the subject is here and application of the Fourth Amendment specifically to home inspections is explained further here.
A troubling trend made possible by progress in electronic technology is the increased use of hidden cameras. These are now found in a variety of places including schools. Regarding school use, issues understandably arise when the cameras are used in places where privacy is invaded, such as bathrooms, a nurse's station or even a principal's shower. Many states are now passing laws prohibiting one particularly offensive use of hidden cameras that invades privacy--the practice of upskirting.
Other pages on HB-Rights.org that pertain to privacy rights:
FERPA protects the privacy of student records.
PPRA protects the privacy of students and their families from intrusive surveys conducted by public schools.
Free Speech includes a section on your right to anonymous speech.
Cyber Rights includes links to organizations that work to protect your on-line privacy.